Verses of Leviticus 2


Leviticus 2:13 Commentary - Charles Simeon's Horae Homileticae (Old and New Testaments)


Lev 2:13. Every oblation of thy meat-offering shalt thou season with salt; neither shalt thou suffer the salt of the covenant of thy God to be lacking from thy meat-offering: with all thine offerings, thou shalt offer salt.

THERE certainly is need of much sobriety and caution in interpreting the typical parts of Scripture, lest, instead of adhering to the path marked out for us by the inspired writers, we be found wandering in the regions of fancy and conjecture. But there are some types, which, notwithstanding they be soberly explained, appear at first sight the mere creatures of one’s own imagination; which, however, on a more full investigation, evidently appear to have been instituted of God for the express purpose of prefiguring the truths of the Gospel. Of this kind is the ordinance now under our consideration: for the elucidating of which, we shall,


Explain the meat-offering—

The directions respecting it were very minute—
[Meat-offerings were annexed to many of the more solemn sacrifices, and constituted a part of them [Note: Numbers 28 throughout.]. But they were also frequently offered by themselves. They were to consist of fine flour, mixed with oil, and accompanied with frankincense [Note:, 2, 5.]. The quantity offered was at the option of the offerer, because it was a free-will offering. The wheat might be presented either simply dried and formed into flour, or baked as a cake, or fried as a wafer [Note:, 7, 14.]: but, in whatever way it was presented, it must by all means have salt upon it [Note: 3.]. It was on no account to have any mixture in it, either of honey, or of leaven [Note: 1.]. A part, or a memorial of it, was to be taken by the priest (but with all the frankincense), and to be burnt upon the altar [Note: 6.]: and the remainder was for the maintenance of the priest himself, as holy food. “When it was duly offered in this manner, it was most pleasing and acceptable to God.]

And this was altogether typical of things under the gospel dispensation.
It was typical,


Of Christ’s sacrifice—

[The meat-offering, or mincha, is often spoken of in direct reference to Christ, and his sacrifice. In the Epistle to the Hebrews, we have a long passage quoted from the Psalms, to shew that neither the meat-offering (mincha) nor any other sacrifice was to be presented to God, after that Christ should have fulfilled those types by his one offering of himself upon the cross [Note: Compare Psa 40:6-8 with Heb 10:5-10.]. And it is of great importance in this view to remember, that though the meat-offering was for the most part eucharistical, or an expression of thankfulness, it was sometimes presented as a sin-offering, to make an atonement for sin: only, on those occasions, it was not mixed with oil, or accompanied with frankincense, because everything expressive of joy was unsuited to a sin-offering [Note: Lev 5:11; Lev 5:13. See also 1Sa 3:14.]. This is a clear proof, that it must typify the sacrifice of Christ, who is the true, the only propitiation for sin [Note: 1Jn 2:2.].

Now there was a peculiar suitableness in this offering to represent the sacrifice of Christ. Was it of the finest quality, mixed with the purest oil, and free from any kind of leaven? this prefigured his holy nature, anointed, in a superabundant measure, with the oil of joy and gladness [Note: Psa 45:7; Joh 3:34.], and free from the smallest particle of sin [Note: 1Pe 2:22.]. Its destruction by fire on the altar denoted the sufferings he was to endure upon the cross; while the consumption of the remainder by the priests, marked him out as the food of his people’s souls, all of them being partakers of the sacerdotal office, a kingdom of priests [Note: Exo 19:6 with 1Pe 2:9.]. The frankincense also, which ascended in sweet odours, intimated the acceptableness of his sacrifice on our behalf.]


Of our services—

[The services of Christians are also frequently mentioned in terms alluding to the mincha, or meat-offering. Their alms are spoken of as a sacrifice well pleasing to God [Note: Heb 13:16.], an odour of a sweet smell [Note: Php 4:18.]. Their prayers are said to be as the evening sacrifice, that was always accompanied with the meat-offering [Note: Psa 141:2 with Num 28:4-5.]: and the prophet Malachi, foretelling that, under the Gospel, “all men,” Gentiles as well as Jews, “should pray everywhere [Note: 1Ti 2:8.],” uses this language; “I have no pleasure in you (Jews) saith the Lord, neither will I receive an offering (a mincha) at your hand: for from the rising of the sun even to the going down of the same, my name shall be great among the Gentiles, and in every place incense shall be offered unto my name, and a pure offering (mincha); for my name shall be great among the heathen, saith the Lord of hosts [Note: Mal 1:10-11.].” In a word, the conversion of sinners, and their entire devoting of themselves to God, is represented under this image: “They shall bring all your brethren, says the prophet, for an offering (mincha) unto the Lord, as the children of Israel bring an offering (mincha) in a clean vessel unto the Lord [Note: Isa 66:20.].” And St. Paul (alluding to the flour mixed with oil) speaks of himself as ministering the Gospel to the Gentiles, “that the offering up of the Gentiles might be acceptable, being sanctified by the Holy Ghost [Note: Rom 15:16.].”

Nor is it without evident propriety that our services were prefigured by this ordinance. Was the flour to be of the best quality, and impregnated with oil? we must offer unto God, not our body only, but our soul; and that too, anointed with an holy unction [Note: 1Th 5:23; 1Jn 2:20; 1Jn 2:27.]. Was neither honey, nor leaven, to be mixed with it? our services must be free from carnality [Note: If we are to annex any other idea than that of leaven to “honey,” that of carnality seems the most appropriate. Pro 25:16; Pro 25:27.], or hypocrisy [Note: Luk 12:1; 1Co 5:7-8.]. Was a part of it, together with all the “frankincense, to be burnt upon the altar, and the remainder to be eaten as holy food? thus must our services be inflamed with divine love, and be offered wholly to the glory of God; and, while they ascend up with acceptance before God, they shall surely tend also to the strengthening and refreshing of our own souls [Note: Isa 58:10-11.].]

There is, however, one circumstance in the meat-offering, which, for its importance, needs a distinct consideration; which will lead us to,


Notice the strict injunction respecting the seasoning of it with salt—

It surely was not in vain, that the injunction respecting the use of salt in this, and in every other offering, was so solemnly thrice repeated in the space of one single verse. But not even that injunction should induce one to look for any peculiar mystery (at least, not publicly to attempt an explanation of the mystery) if the Scriptures did not unfold to us its meaning, and give us a clew to the interpretation of it.

The whole ordinance being typical, we must consider this injunction,


In reference to Christ’s sacrifice—

[Salt, in Scripture, is used to denote savouriness and perpetuity. In the former sense, our Lord compares his people to good salt, while false professors are as “salt that has lost its savour [Note: Mat 5:13.].” In the latter sense, God’s covenant is often called “a covenant of salt [Note: Num 18:19, and 2Ch 13:5.].” Apply then these ideas to the sacrifice of Christ, and the reason of this reiterated injunction will immediately appear.

How savoury to God, and how sweet to man, is the atonement which Christ has offered! In the view of its acceptableness to God, and in direct reference to the meat-offering, it is thus noticed by St. Paul; “He gave himself for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet smelling savour [Note: Eph 5:2.].” And, as having laid, by his own death, the foundation of his spiritual temple, he is said to be “precious unto man also, even unto all them that believe [Note: 1Pe 2:7.].”

Moreover the efficacy of his atonement is as immutable as God himself. In this, as well as in every other respect, “Jesus Christ is the same yesterday, to-day, and for ever [Note: Heb 13:8.].” The virtue of his blood to cleanse from sin, was not more powerful in the day when it purified three thousand converts, than it is at this hour, and shall be to all who trust in it [Note: 1Jn 1:7.].]


In reference to our services—

[Let the ideas of savouriness and perpetuity be transferred to these also, and it will appear that this exposition is not dictated by fancy, but by the Scriptures themselves.
A mere formal service, destitute of life and power, may be justly spoken of in the same humiliating terms as a false professor, “It is not fit for the land, nor yet for the dunghill [Note: Luk 14:34-35.].” Hence our Lord says, in reference to the very injunction before us, “Every sacrifice shall be salted with salt. Salt is good: but if the salt have lost its saltness, wherewith will you season it? Have salt within yourselves [Note: Mar 9:49-50.].” What can this mean, but that there should be a life and power in all our services, an heavenliness and spirituality in our whole deportment? We should have in ourselves [Note: Mat 16:23.], and present to God [Note: 2Co 2:15.], and diffuse on all around us [Note: 2Co 2:14.], a “savour of the knowledge of Christ.”

Nor is the continuance or perpetuity of our services less strongly marked: for in addition to the remarkable expressions of our Lord before cited [Note: Mar 9:49-50.], St. Paul directs, that our “speech be alway with grace, seasoned with salt [Note: Col 4:6.].” There never ought to be one hour’s intermission to the divine life, not one moment when we have lost the savour and relish of divine things.]

In order to a due improvement of this subject, let us reduce it to practice—

Let us take of Christ’s sacrifice, and both present it to God, and feed upon it in our souls—

[All the Lord’s people are “kings and priests unto God [Note: Rev 1:6.]:” all therefore have a right to present to him this offering, and to feed upon it: both of these things may be done by faith; and both must be done by us, if ever we would find acceptance with God. Let us think what would have been the state of the Jewish priests, if they had declined the execution of their office. Let us then put ourselves into their situation, and rest assured, that a neglect of this duty will bring upon us God’s heavy and eternal displeasure [Note: Joh 6:53.]. On the other hand, if we believe in Christ, and feed on his body and blood, we shall be monuments of his love and mercy for evermore [Note: Joh 6:54.].]


Let us devote ourselves to God in the constant exercise of all holy affections—

[All we have is from the Lord: and all must be dedicated to his service. But let us be sure that, with our outward services, we give him our hearts [Note: Pro 23:26.]. “What if a man, having good corn and oil, had offered that which was damaged? Should it have been accepted [Note: Mal 1:8.] ? Or, if he had neglected to add the salt, should it have had any savour in God’s estimation? So neither will the form of godliness be of any value without the power [Note: 2Ti 3:5.] ; but, if we present ourselves [Note: Rom 12:1.], or any spiritual sacrifice whatever, it shall be accepted of God through Christ [Note: 1Pe 2:5.], to our present and eternal comfort.]

Verses of Leviticus 2


Consult other comments:

Leviticus 2:13 - Albert Barnes' Notes on the Bible

Leviticus 2:13 - Joseph Benson’s Commentary on the Old and New Testaments

Leviticus 2:13 - Calvin's Complete Commentary

Leviticus 2:13 - The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges

Leviticus 2:13 - Adam Clarke's Commentary and Critical Notes on the Bible

Leviticus 2:13 - Commentary on the Holy Bible by Thomas Coke

Leviticus 2:13 - Companion Bible Notes, Appendices and Graphics

Leviticus 2:13 - Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers (Old and New Testaments)

Leviticus 2:13 - Geneva Bible Notes

Leviticus 2:13 - John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible

Leviticus 2:13 - Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary (Old and New Testaments)

Leviticus 2:13 - Charles Simeon's Horae Homileticae (Old and New Testaments)

Leviticus 2:13 - Biblical Illustrator Edited by Joseph S. Exell

Leviticus 2:13 - Jamieson, Fausset and Brown's Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

Leviticus 2:13 - English Annotations on the Holy Bible by Matthew Poole

Leviticus 2:13 - Scofield Reference Bible Notes

Leviticus 2:13 - John Trapp's Complete Commentary (Old and New Testaments)

Leviticus 2:13 - The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Leviticus 2:13 - Whedon's Commentary on the Old and New Testaments

Charles Simeon's Horae Homileticae (Old and New Testaments)