Verses of Exodus 5


Exodus 5:2 Commentary - Charles Simeon's Horae Homileticae (Old and New Testaments)


Exo 5:2. And Pharaoh said, Who is the Lord, that I should obey his voice, to let Israel go? I know not the Lord, neither will I let Israel go.

MANY of the characters in the Old Testament are “set forth to us as examples;” and their history is recorded “for our admonition, upon whom the ends of the world are come [Note: 1Co 10:6; 1Co 10:11.].” Amongst these, Pharaoh holds a very conspicuous place. When he persisted in his rebellion against God, Moses was inspired to declare to him what a monument of God’s indignation he should be made to all future generations, and that God had raised him up to his exalted station for that express purpose. Not that God had infused any evil disposition into his mind; but by investing him with regal authority, and continuing him in the exercise of that authority notwithstanding his impious abuse of it, he enabled Pharaoh to display more conspicuously the wickedness of his heart, and to involve himself and his whole kingdom in more awful judgments than he could have done if he had moved in the situation of a private man. St. Paul quotes this declaration, in order to shew, that God disposes of men according to his sovereign will and pleasure, either converting them unto himself, or permitting them to proceed in their wickedness, in such a way as shall ultimately conduce most to the honour of his own name, and to the accomplishment of his own eternal purposes [Note: Compare Exo 9:16 with Rom 9:15-18.]. In this view, the passage before us is commended to us, as of singular importance. It shews us, not only what Pharaoh was, but what human nature itself is, if left to manifest its dispositions without restraint. I shall take occasion from it, therefore, to shew,


The impiety of Pharaoh—

I will bring it before you in a brief but comprehensive way. Mark,


Its source—

[It arose from pride and ignorance. Because there was no man of greater eminence than himself on earth, this unhappy monarch imagined that there was none above him even in heaven. Poor foolish worm! swelling with his own importance, whilst the plagues inflicted on him shewed how impotent he was to repel the assaults of the meanest insects. What insufferable arrogance was there in that question, “Who is the Lord, that I should obey his voice?” And what horrible impiety in that declaration, “I know not the Lord; neither will I let Israel go!” True, thou son of Belial, thou hast unwittingly assigned the real cause of thine obstinacy: “I know not the Lord [Note: 1Sa 2:12.].” As St. Paul says of the Jews, “Had they known, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory [Note: 1Co 2:8.],” so say I to thee: Hadst thou known what a great and holy Being thou wast resisting, thou wouldst not have dared to withstand him thus. No: thou wouldst have bowed before him, and submitted instantly to his commands. Thy profaneness was proof enough of thine ignorance.]


Its operation—

[His obstinacy was irreclaimable, whether by judgments or by mercies. Nine successive plagues, and the removal of them all at thy request, were insufficient to subdue the pride and haughtiness of thy spirit. Not even the tenth, the greatest and heaviest of them all, prevailed on thee to desist from fighting against God. Thy relentings were only momentary: thy hardness returned the very instant thou wast out of the furnace: thine own consent thou didst recall; and follow with murderous rage those thou hadst permitted to go forth from, thy land. How blinded wast thou by the wickedness of thine own heart! Thou wast alike insensible to the evil and the danger of thy ways. And in this thou hast shewn what is, in every place and in every age, the sad effect of sin.]


Its issue—

[Whither did it lead this devoted monarch, but to shame and ruin? Thou saidst, “Neither will I let Israel go.” But when that Jehovah whom thou defiedst put forth his hand against thee, thou didst thrust them forth from thy land: and so anxious were thy whole people to get rid of them, that they loaded them with all their most valuable jewels, and with every thing that could be desired to speed their way.
But when they seemed to be entangled in the land, and an opportunity was afforded thee, as thou thoughtest, for their destruction, thou couldst not forbear: thou wouldst seize the occasion, and summon all thine hosts, and execute upon them thy vengeance to the uttermost. Thou sawest the sea opening for them a way: but hadst thou yet to learn that God would put a difference between the Israelites and Egyptians? Presumptuous wretch! thou wouldst follow them even through the sea itself, and lead on in passion thine infatuated hosts. I see thee enter within the watery walls which Omnipotence had raised: but there thou hastenest to thy destruction. Now escape from the snare into which thine impiety has led thee. Thou canst not: thy chariot wheels are broken; and too late dost thou find that Jehovah fights for Israel. Of all that followed this infuriated monarch, not one escaped; the sea came upon them, and overwhelmed them all; not so much as one was left, to report to Egypt the calamity they had sustained.]
But, not to dwell any longer on the impiety of Pharaoh, I shall proceed to that which is of more immediate interest to ourselves; namely, to shew,


To what an extent a similar spirit prevails amongst us—

To you the messages of heaven are sent—
[We, Brethren, are ambassadors of God to you, and in his sacred name do we bring you the counsels which we offer; and every word that is so delivered, in accordance with his mind and will, must be received, “not as the word of man, but as the word of God himself.” To every different class of hearers have we a message suited to their state. We call upon the licentious to forsake their evil ways; the worldling to seek for better things than this world can give; the formal and self-righteous to renounce their self-dependence, and to make the Lord Jesus Christ the ground of all their hopes.]
But who amongst you can be prevailed upon to obey the word?
[The same spirit by which Pharaoh was actuated, pervades the great mass of mankind; every one displaying it in a way suited to his own particular state. Some will openly say, with Pharaoh, “Who is the Lord, that I should obey his voice?” Others, who would not altogether express themselves in such impious terms, will yet in effect maintain the same language, and practically follow the some ungodly course. The inspired writers give this precise view of the ungodly world. Job speaks of them, as saying to God in his day, “Depart from us; for we desire not the knowledge of thy ways, what is the Almighty, that we should serve him? and what profit should we have, if we pray unto him [Note: Job 21:14-15.] ?” David gives a similar representation of them in his day: “They have said, With our tongues shall we prevail: our lips are our own: who is Lord over us [Note: Psa 12:4.] ?” The Prophet Jeremiah gives exactly the same character of those in his age: all classes of the community said to his very face, in answer to the messages he delivered to them from the Lord, “As for the word that thou hast spoken unto us in the name of the Lord, we will not hearken unto thee: but we will certainly do whatsoever thing goeth forth out of our own mouth, or cometh into our own hearts [Note: Jer 44:16-17 with 23:17.].” Now from these testimonies it is evident that I am not putting an undue construction on the words of Pharaoh, or pressing them too far, when I represent them as characterizing the spirit of the present day. It is clear that men do at this day “reject the word of the Lord,” and “cast it behind them,” and, in effect, say as he did, “Who is the Lord, that I should obey his voice?” It is obvious, too, that they do this in the midst of all the judgments and mercies with which God is pleased to visit them. There may be in many an occasional relenting, or purpose to amend: but all endeavour to lower the commands of God to the standard that is agreeable to their own minds; nor do any, except those who have been savingly converted to God, through Christ, ever surrender up themselves to God, or yield an unreserved obedience to his commands.]

And in what must your disobedience issue?
[Ask of persons in their career of sin, and they will tell you that they have nothing to fear. The confidence of Pharaoh and all his host exactly represents their state. Behold that whole army: onward they go, in prosecution of their bloody purpose: but little do they think how soon they will rue their folly, and how irretrievable will their ruin be m the space of a few moments. See them pressing forward: how little do they apprehend the fate that awaits them! So be-hold the various classes of ungodly men: how little do they dream of the destruction to which they are hastening! Wait but a few short moments, and they will all sink into everlasting perdition. But will not their confidence deliver them? No: the greater their confidence, the more certain is their ruin. But surely we may hope that their numbers will be some protection No: of the whole Egyptian army, not one soul escaped: nor, if the unconverted world were a million times more numerous than they are, should one single soul escape the wrath of God. They are willingly and determinately treasuring up wrath to themselves against the day of wrath: and at the appointed season it shall come upon them to the uttermost. Then they will know who that Lord is, whom now they so despise: and they shall find, to their cost, that “those who walk in pride he is able to abase [Note: Dan 4:37.].”]

See then, from hence,

How great is the folly of ungodly men!

[Were a child to contend in battle with a man, who would not upbraid him for his folly and presumption in entering into so unequal a contest? But what shall we say of those who set themselves in array against the Majesty of heaven? Truly, a contest of briers and thorns against a devouring fire would not be more absurd. And this is the very comparison which is made by God himself: “Who would set briers and thorns against me in battle? I would go through them, and burn them up together [Note: Isa 27:4.].” I pray you, Brethren, remember against whom it is that you fight. It is against Him, who by a word spake the universe into existence, and by a word could reduce it in an instant to absolute nonentity. Look at the fallen angels, and see the consequence of rebelling against God! Look at the antediluvian world, and say, whether it be not an evil and bitter thing to sin against him, and to provoke his displeasure. Were it possible for you to withstand his power or to elude his search, you might have some excuse for casting off his light and easy yoke: but indeed you must, ere long, be summoned to his tribunal, and receive at his hands a doom which can never be reversed. And “will ye be strong in the day that he shall deal with you, or will ye thunder with a voice like his?” I pray you, lay down the weapons of your rebellion without delay, and implore mercy at the Saviour’s hands, whilst yet “the day of salvation lasts, and the accepted time is continued to you.”]


How greatly are they to be pitied!

[See how secure they are in their own apprehensions, and how confidently they expect a successful termination of their conflicts! Unhappy men! Methinks I see you in the agonies of death, and behold you at the instant of your entrance into the presence of your God. Oh! could we but conceive your terrors, and hear your cries, and witness your unavailing lamentations, how should we pity you! Could we further behold the triumphant exultations of that cruel fiend, who was once your tempter, and will then be your tormentor to all eternity, how should we weep over you! And lastly, if we could behold you suffering the vengeance of eternal fire, under the wrath of Almighty God, methinks it would be too much for us to endure: the very sight would overwhelm us, even though we had no fears for ourselves. Verily, it was with good reason that the Saviour wept over the devoted city of Jerusalem: and we would that “our eyes also were a fountain of tears, to run down day and night” on account of your present obduracy, and on account of the miseries that await you in the eternal world!]


How desirable is the knowledge of God, as revealed in the Gospel!

[Never was there one who sought the face of God in vain. No: however long ye may have rebelled against God, there is mercy for you, if you turn to him with your whole hearts. Think how many of those who crucified the Lord of glory obtained mercy at his hands: and so shall you also, if you will humble yourselves before him, and seek for mercy through his atoning blood. “Not so much as one of you should perish, if you would but go to him.” No truly, “there is no condemnation to them that are in Christ Jesus.” “All that believe in him shall be justified from all things.” “Acquaint, then, Yourselves with God, and be at peace.” Seek “that knowledge of him which is life eternal.” And know, that, whilst “they who know him not, and obey not his Gospel, shall be banished from the presence of his glory,” his believing and obedient servants shall both serve him, and be served by him, in his kingdom and glory, for ever and ever.]

Verses of Exodus 5


Consult other comments:

Exodus 5:2 - Albert Barnes' Notes on the Bible

Exodus 5:2 - Joseph Benson’s Commentary on the Old and New Testaments

Exodus 5:2 - Calvin's Complete Commentary

Exodus 5:2 - The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges

Exodus 5:2 - Adam Clarke's Commentary and Critical Notes on the Bible

Exodus 5:2 - Commentary on the Holy Bible by Thomas Coke

Exodus 5:2 - Companion Bible Notes, Appendices and Graphics

Exodus 5:2 - Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers (Old and New Testaments)

Exodus 5:2 - John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible

Exodus 5:2 - Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary (Old and New Testaments)

Exodus 5:2 - Charles Simeon's Horae Homileticae (Old and New Testaments)

Exodus 5:2 - Biblical Illustrator Edited by Joseph S. Exell

Exodus 5:2 - Jamieson, Fausset and Brown's Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

Exodus 5:2 - The People's Bible by Joseph Parker

Exodus 5:2 - English Annotations on the Holy Bible by Matthew Poole

Exodus 5:2 - John Trapp's Complete Commentary (Old and New Testaments)

Exodus 5:2 - The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Exodus 5:2 - Whedon's Commentary on the Old and New Testaments

Charles Simeon's Horae Homileticae (Old and New Testaments)