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Deuteronomy 3:1 Commentary - The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges

1. turned, and went up ] See on Deu 1:7.

Bashan ] Heb. the Bashan, so in all historical statements and sometimes in poetry in which however the article is oftener omitted ( HGHL, 549 n. 7). In its wider sense the name covered all the land from the. Yarmûk to Ḥermon, Deu 4:43, Deu 33:22. But its proper application was confined to the land immediately N. of the Yarmûk and E. of Geshur and Ma‘akah, the present Jaulan (see below Deu 3:14, Deu 4:43): the S. end of Ḥauran, including ‘Ashtaroth (perhaps Tell el ‘Ashari) on the W., Edre‘i on the S. and Salkah on the S.E. (Deu 1:4, Deu 3:10, Jos 9:10; Jos 12:4; Jos 13:11 f., 31), the district known in Greek times as Batanea, and in the 10th century still called ‘Ard-el-Bathaniyeh, containing Edre‘i (Idrisi); but to-day the name has drifted N.E. to the E. of the Lejá. Ar. Bathnah means level, loamy land (Freytag) and suits the region. See HGHL, 549, 553, 570 f.

Og ] The name ‘Og, LXX Ιώγ and Ὤγ , does not occur except as that of the king of Bashan; the root meaning ‘curved’ or ‘round’ supplies some Ar. geographical names. W. R. Smith ( Rel. of the Sem. 83) arguing that in Heb. a king’s name is usually joined with that of his people or of his capital (e.g. Sîḥôn, king of the Amorites, or of Ḥeshbon) and that ‘Ôg’s is the only exception, takes ‘Ôg ‘who is a mythical figure’ as presumably ‘an old god of the region.’

Edrei ] Edre‘i on the S. frontier of Bashan ( Deu 3:10), the Otara‘a of Egyptian inscriptions, Adra of Ptolemy, Adraa of Euseb., now Edhra‘at, Dera‘at or on Bedawee lips ’Azra‘at, a strong site on the S. edge of the gorge that forms the S. limit of Ḥauran, and further entrenched by a tributary ravine. In the rock beneath the walled city, a labyrinth of streets with houses and shops was excavated. That this marvel is not mentioned in the O.T. proves it of later date, and indeed its architecture and inscriptions point to the Greek period: HGHL, 576, ZDPV, xx. 118 ff. On the only possible remains in Bashan of ‘Ôg’s time see Driver, Deut., in loco.

Duet Deu 1:6 to Deu 3:29. Historical Part of the First Introductory Discourse

Spoken in the land of Moab (Deu 1:5) in the gai or glen, over against Beth Pe‘or (Deu 3:29), a review of Israel’s experiences since they left Ḥoreb. In the Plur. form of address except for the following fragments Deu 1:8; Deu 1:21; Deu 1:31 a, Deu 2:7; Deu 2:24 b, Deu 2:25; Deu 2:30 b, Deu 2:37 [108] . We shall see how far these are detachable from the context, or give evidence of their later intrusion. There are, too, a number of parentheses, dealing with matters beyond Israel’s experience and therefore beyond the aim of the discourse: archaeological notes on the peoples who preceded Moab, Edom, Ammon, the Philistines and Israel, and on Ḥermon; Deu 2:10-12; Deu 2:10-23, Deu 3:9; Deu 3:11; Deu 3:13 b, 14. The contents of these notes are suitable neither to the voice of the Deity, to whose words some of them are attached, Deu 2:10-12; Deu 2:20-23, nor in the mouth of Moses whose purpose is to recall to Israel their own experience. They are notes or glosses, either by the author or an editor. All the rest (except perhaps Deu 3:15-17, which see) forms a unity, complete in itself.

[108] The Sing, in Deu 2:9 a (LXX Plur.) and even in Deu 2:19 may be due, as in Deu 3:27, to the fact that the address is to Moses himself.

The following are the divisions: (1) Deu 1:6-8, order to depart from Horeb; (2) Deu 1:9-18, institution of Judges; (3) Deu 1:19, journey to Ḳadesh-Barnea‘, to which probably belong Deu 1:1 b, Deu 1:2 (see above); (4) Deu 1:20-25, mission of the spies; (5) Deu 1:26-43, consequent disaffection of the people; (6) Deu 1:34-40, wrath and judgement of God; (7) Deu 1:41-46, defeat of the attempt to enter the land from the south, and residence at Ḳadesh; (8) Deu 2:1-8 a, departure from Ḳadesh and circuit of Mt Se‘îr; (9) Deu 2:8-15, further march to Wâdy-Zered, which they cross 38 years after leaving Ḳadesh, when all the adult generation have died; (10) Deu 2:16-25, command to cross Arnon, the border of Moab, to avoid ‘Ammon and to fight Sîḥôn; (11) Deu 2:26-37, defeat of Sîḥôn; (12) Deu 3:1-7, defeat of ‘Ôg; (13) Deu 3:8-17, division of the conquered lands; (14) Deu 3:18-22, directions to the tribes left there and to Joshua; (15) Deu 3:23-29, Moses’ Prayer to cross Jordan and its rejection.

The same stretch of history from Ḥoreb to the Jordan is treated by JE, Exo 33:1-17, and Num 10:29 onwards; and by P from Numbers 12 onwards. JE seems the basis of this deuteronomic review, even to the extent of supplying verbal details. But the review is not only written in a style peculiar to the deuteronomic writings; it adds some facts not found in JE and differs from JE in its presentation of others. On P the review shows no dependence, and P differs from it considerably both in the language used for the same events and in several matters of substance. On these see below.

Consult other comments:

Deuteronomy 3:1 - Joseph Benson’s Commentary on the Old and New Testaments

Deuteronomy 3:1 - The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges

Deuteronomy 3:1 - B.H. Carroll's An Interpretation of the English Bible

Deuteronomy 3:1 - Through the Bible Commentary

Deuteronomy 3:1 - Adam Clarke's Commentary and Critical Notes on the Bible

Deuteronomy 3:1 - College Press Bible Study Textbook Series

Deuteronomy 3:1 - Companion Bible Notes, Appendices and Graphics

Deuteronomy 3:1 - Expository Notes of Dr. Constable (Old and New Testaments)

Deuteronomy 3:1 - Expositors Bible Commentary

Deuteronomy 3:1 - Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers (Old and New Testaments)

Deuteronomy 3:1 - Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures

Deuteronomy 3:1 - Expositor's Dictionary of Text by Robertson

Deuteronomy 3:1 - F.B. Meyer's Through the Bible Commentary

Deuteronomy 3:1 - Gaebelein's Annotated Bible (Commentary)

Deuteronomy 3:1 - Garner-Howes Baptist Commentary

Deuteronomy 3:1 - Geneva Bible Notes

Deuteronomy 3:1 - John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible

Deuteronomy 3:1 - Grant's Commentary on the Bible

Deuteronomy 3:1 - Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary (Old and New Testaments)

Deuteronomy 3:1 - Matthew Henry's Whole Bible Commentary

Deuteronomy 3:1 - Biblical Illustrator Edited by Joseph S. Exell

Deuteronomy 3:1 - Jamieson, Fausset and Brown's Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

Deuteronomy 3:1 - Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament

Deuteronomy 3:1 - The Popular Commentary on the Bible by Kretzmann

Deuteronomy 3:1 - A Commentary on the Holy Scriptures, Critical, Doctrinal, and Homiletical by Lange

Deuteronomy 3:1 - Neighbour's Wells of Living Water

Deuteronomy 3:1 - Mackintosh's Notes on the Pentateuch

Deuteronomy 3:1 - The People's Bible by Joseph Parker

Deuteronomy 3:1 - Peake's Commentary on the Bible

Deuteronomy 3:1 - Commentary Series on the Bible by Peter Pett

Deuteronomy 3:1 - The Preacher's Complete Homiletical Commentary Edited by Joseph S. Exell

Deuteronomy 3:1 - The Complete Pulpit Commentary

Deuteronomy 3:1 - The Bible of the Expositor and the Evangelist by Riley

Deuteronomy 3:1 - The Sermon Bible

Deuteronomy 3:1 - Sutcliffe's Commentary on the Old and New Testaments

Deuteronomy 3:1 - John Trapp's Complete Commentary (Old and New Testaments)

Deuteronomy 3:1 - The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Deuteronomy 3:1 - You Can Understand the Bible: Study Guide Commentary Series by Bob Utley

Deuteronomy 3:1 - Whedon's Commentary on the Old and New Testaments

The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges