Deuteronomy 3:1 Commentary - The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges
1. turned, and went up ] See on Deu 1:7.
Bashan ] Heb. the Bashan, so in all historical statements and sometimes in poetry in which however the article is oftener omitted ( HGHL, 549 n. 7). In its wider sense the name covered all the land from the. Yarmûk to Ḥermon, Deu 4:43, Deu 33:22. But its proper application was confined to the land immediately N. of the Yarmûk and E. of Geshur and Ma‘akah, the present Jaulan (see below Deu 3:14, Deu 4:43): the S. end of Ḥauran, including ‘Ashtaroth (perhaps Tell el ‘Ashari) on the W., Edre‘i on the S. and Salkah on the S.E. (Deu 1:4, Deu 3:10, Jos 9:10; Jos 12:4; Jos 13:11 f., 31), the district known in Greek times as Batanea, and in the 10th century still called ‘Ard-el-Bathaniyeh, containing Edre‘i (Idrisi); but to-day the name has drifted N.E. to the E. of the Lejá. Ar. Bathnah means level, loamy land (Freytag) and suits the region. See HGHL, 549, 553, 570 f.
Og ] The name ‘Og, LXX Ιώγ and Ὤγ , does not occur except as that of the king of Bashan; the root meaning ‘curved’ or ‘round’ supplies some Ar. geographical names. W. R. Smith ( Rel. of the Sem. 83) arguing that in Heb. a king’s name is usually joined with that of his people or of his capital (e.g. Sîḥôn, king of the Amorites, or of Ḥeshbon) and that ‘Ôg’s is the only exception, takes ‘Ôg ‘who is a mythical figure’ as presumably ‘an old god of the region.’
Edrei ] Edre‘i on the S. frontier of Bashan ( Deu 3:10), the Otara‘a of Egyptian inscriptions, Adra of Ptolemy, Adraa of Euseb., now Edhra‘at, Dera‘at or on Bedawee lips ’Azra‘at, a strong site on the S. edge of the gorge that forms the S. limit of Ḥauran, and further entrenched by a tributary ravine. In the rock beneath the walled city, a labyrinth of streets with houses and shops was excavated. That this marvel is not mentioned in the O.T. proves it of later date, and indeed its architecture and inscriptions point to the Greek period: HGHL, 576, ZDPV, xx. 118 ff. On the only possible remains in Bashan of ‘Ôg’s time see Driver, Deut., in loco.
Spoken in the land of Moab (Deu 1:5) in the gai or glen, over against Beth Pe‘or (Deu 3:29), a review of Israel’s experiences since they left Ḥoreb. In the Plur. form of address except for the following fragments Deu 1:8; Deu 1:21; Deu 1:31 a, Deu 2:7; Deu 2:24 b, Deu 2:25; Deu 2:30 b, Deu 2:37  . We shall see how far these are detachable from the context, or give evidence of their later intrusion. There are, too, a number of parentheses, dealing with matters beyond Israel’s experience and therefore beyond the aim of the discourse: archaeological notes on the peoples who preceded Moab, Edom, Ammon, the Philistines and Israel, and on Ḥermon; Deu 2:10-12; Deu 2:10-23, Deu 3:9; Deu 3:11; Deu 3:13 b, 14. The contents of these notes are suitable neither to the voice of the Deity, to whose words some of them are attached, Deu 2:10-12; Deu 2:20-23, nor in the mouth of Moses whose purpose is to recall to Israel their own experience. They are notes or glosses, either by the author or an editor. All the rest (except perhaps Deu 3:15-17, which see) forms a unity, complete in itself.
The following are the divisions: (1) Deu 1:6-8, order to depart from Horeb; (2) Deu 1:9-18, institution of Judges; (3) Deu 1:19, journey to Ḳadesh-Barnea‘, to which probably belong Deu 1:1 b, Deu 1:2 (see above); (4) Deu 1:20-25, mission of the spies; (5) Deu 1:26-43, consequent disaffection of the people; (6) Deu 1:34-40, wrath and judgement of God; (7) Deu 1:41-46, defeat of the attempt to enter the land from the south, and residence at Ḳadesh; (8) Deu 2:1-8 a, departure from Ḳadesh and circuit of Mt Se‘îr; (9) Deu 2:8-15, further march to Wâdy-Zered, which they cross 38 years after leaving Ḳadesh, when all the adult generation have died; (10) Deu 2:16-25, command to cross Arnon, the border of Moab, to avoid ‘Ammon and to fight Sîḥôn; (11) Deu 2:26-37, defeat of Sîḥôn; (12) Deu 3:1-7, defeat of ‘Ôg; (13) Deu 3:8-17, division of the conquered lands; (14) Deu 3:18-22, directions to the tribes left there and to Joshua; (15) Deu 3:23-29, Moses’ Prayer to cross Jordan and its rejection.
The same stretch of history from Ḥoreb to the Jordan is treated by JE, Exo 33:1-17, and Num 10:29 onwards; and by P from Numbers 12 onwards. JE seems the basis of this deuteronomic review, even to the extent of supplying verbal details. But the review is not only written in a style peculiar to the deuteronomic writings; it adds some facts not found in JE and differs from JE in its presentation of others. On P the review shows no dependence, and P differs from it considerably both in the language used for the same events and in several matters of substance. On these see below.
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The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges
The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges is a biblical commentary set published in parts by Cambridge University Press from 1882 onwards. Anglican bishop John Perowne was the general editor. The first section published was written by theologian Thomas Kelly Cheyne and covered the Book of Micah.
Perowne exercised limited editorial control over the writers of individual commentaries: his aim was "to leave each contributor to the unfettered exercise of his own judgment".